PSY215 First Exam Study Guide Winter 2010
These are your exam questions. You will need to be able to recognize the correct answer from a list of four possible choices. Please remember a scantron. I will devise some way to record the answers for the extra 6 items.
1) The Christian doctrine of ________ is the basis for the theory that human development occurs as a result of how well or how poorly someone does at overcoming their innately sinful nature.
2) Who was the philosopher who believed that children are born with a mind which is a blank slate?
3) The idea that the earth contains a wide variety of life forms and that humans have developed as a result of the interaction of heredity and environment was proposed by
4) Which of the following best describes your text's approach to human development?
5) Which domain of developmental psychology examines interactions with others?
6) Stella, age 12, is in the 6th grade, but still reads at a 3rd grade level. Developmentalists would suggest that there is a problem in which domain of development?
7) Juanita's father died when she was just a baby, but her family insists that she not only looks like him, she acts like him as well. This might indicate that which of the following had a large impact on her development?
8) Developmental psychologists have observed that babies seem to be born predisposed to respond to people in certain ways, such as crying or smiling, in order to elicit attention from a caregiver. Psychologists call these inherent tendencies
9) Our sense of "the right time" to go to college, marry, have children, or retire is determined by our
10) What is the term for a general negative attitude about aging, typified by the belief that older persons are incompetent or unable to complete required job functions?
11) The basic idea that there may be significant periods in development when an organism is especially sensitive to the presence or absence of some particular kind of experience or influence is referred to as a
12) Which of the following is the best example of an "off-time" event that could have negative effects upon an individual's development?
13) Predictions that can be tested in an effort to explain human development are known as
14) The Maple Leaf Elementary School counselor, social worker and the parents of eight-year-old Jimmy Jackson are working as a cooperative team to determine why Jimmy exhibits a pattern of highly aggressive behavior toward his peers and teachers. Jimmy's behavior has been extensively observed, he has been subjected to a battery of psychological tests, and his parents have been interviewed. This in-depth examination of Jimmy Jackson is an example of
15) You are a taking part in a survey which asks about your attitudes toward physical punishment of children. Even though you believe that spanking is sometimes necessary, you answer that you are opposed to any sort of physical punishment. Which of the following terms best describes why you answered the way that you did?
16) A new medicine for headaches is in clinical trials. The patients who are receiving this new drug are members of which group?
17) In which of the following research designs, are subjects of different ages studied at the same time and the results compared?
18) Psychoanalytic theorists suggests that human development depends on
19) Which of the following most accurately describes Freud's model of the personality?
20) Jada saw some money on the kitchen table. She really wanted to take it but her conscience kept her from it. Which part of Jada's personality is telling her that it would be socially unacceptable to take the money?
21) According to Freud's model of personality, which of the following best demonstrates the functioning of the id?
22) According to Freud's theory of psychosexual development which of the following occurs when an inadequate early environment fails to meet the needs of any particular stage of psychosexual maturation?
23) Elsa was frequently neglected as a child. As an infant, she would be left in wet diapers, and was not fed on a regular schedule. Which of the following crises was not properly resolved?
24) According to Erikson what is the central issue of adolescence?
25) A self-absorbed, nongenerative adult who is not concerned with establishing and guiding a new generation will be at risk for which of the following?
26) Behavior is more likely to reoccur if
27) A boy is pestering his mother for candy in the grocery store, whining for ten minutes and saying things like, "I want candy! Please? Just this once! Oh, come on, Mom,please?" His mother ignores him for ten minutes, but finally gives in and says, "Oh, all right. Here it is. Just stop whining!" If the boy engages in more whining in the future, and the mother gives in even more easily, which of the following would apply to the mother?
28) Miguel is expected to clean his room and to empty all trash in the house. When Miguel forgets his chores, he is grounded. Which of the following has been appropriately applied if Miguel remembers to do his chores?
29) According to Bandura, which of the following terms best describes the expectancies we acquire about what we can and cannot do?
30) Which of the following best defines the word scheme according to Piaget?
31) According to Piaget's theory, which of the following best applies to the process of assimilation?
32) Which of the following is the best description of the process of accommodation?
33) Five year old Elena can tie her shoes, but she needs her mother's help to untie them. She also needs her mother's help to button her sweater. Vygotsky would suggest that this situation illustrates Elena's
34) An adult adapts a process to a child's developmental level in order to assist the child in developing a new skill or ability. What would Vygotsky call this process?
35) Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory of human development places primary emphasis on
36) Where does fertilization of the ovum take place in a normal pregnancy?
37) Which of the following terms describes an individual's unique genetic blueprint, which is created from genes contributed by both parents?
38) Phyllip has red hair, which comes from a recessive gene. This must mean that Phyllip received the gene from
39) Which of the following is true of a trait that is passed through mitochondrial inheritance?
40) Which of the following terms describes physical traits which are influenced by both genes and the environment?
41) Phenylketonuria is an example of which of the following?
42) Which of the following is caused by a gene on the X chromosome?
43) Which of the following is an autosomal dominant disorder?
44) Reese is taller than average and has larger than usual teeth. Some people used to think that people like Reese would be aggressive and not very bright. With which of the following was Reese most likely born?
45) Not long after Gloria found out she was pregnant, she began having pain. When she went to her doctor, she was told that the zygote had implanted in her fallopian tube rather than in her uterus. What type of pregnancy is this?
46) Which of the following is associated with the second trimester of pregnancy?
47) Organogenesis is
48) Synapses are formed following the development of which of the following neural structures?
49) Which of the following serve to hold neurons together?
50) Your friend is taking Accutane for her adult acne. She comes to you and says that she thinks she is pregnant. What is the best advice that you can give her?
51) Carmelita has smoked an average of one pack of cigarettes per day throughout her pregnancy. How is this likely to affect her fetus?
52) Pregnant women should eat foods high in folic acid, such as beans or spinach, during pregnancy. What is the purpose of this dietary recommendation?
53) Which of the following is the final stage of labor?
54) What is the name of the process of creating new synapses which happens very quickly in the first couple of years after birth?
55) Which of the following is a primary function of brain development in the first year of life?
56) At birth we lack the ability to perceive, think, or use language because which area of our brain is not well developed?
57) Your brain has the ability to change in response to experience. This ability is known as
58) According to many neurophysiologists, which of the following will result in the pruning of redundant neural pathways and the selective retention of the most efficient pathways in an infant's brain?
59) Which of the following processes is an emphasis of brain development in the second year of life?
60) The myelinization in the reticular formation makes which of the following possible?
61) What does your text suggest about the persistence of the Moro reflex or the Babinski reflex beyond six months of age?
62) Your friend Olga is a new, first-time mother. Her three-month-old infant has shown an increase in crying over the past weeks. She doesn't know whether this is because she is picking the child up every time that it cries. She is asking you for advice. What would you say to her?
63) If two-month-old Andrew has colic, which of the following characteristics will be most noticeable to his parents?
64) Most experts recommend that an infant's first solid food be
65) The disease kwashiokor is caused by which of the following?
66) What is micronutrient malnutrition?
67) What is the leading cause of death in the United States among infants between the ages of one month and one year?
68) Which of the following is the simplest precaution that a parent can take to reduce the risk of SIDS?
69) Which of the five senses is most fully developed at birth?
70) Habituation is best defined by which of the following?
71) The "visual cliff" is used to measure which of the following?
72) Which of the following is most likely responsible for infants' preference for their mothers' voices?
73) Gregory is a six month old baby boy. He is learning about his environment through touching things, putting things in his mouth, and scooting around on the floor. According to Piaget, Greg is in which stage of cognitive development?
74) By what age does your text suggest that most infants develop the understanding that objects still exist even when they are out of the infant's sight?
75) A child's understanding of the nature of objects, their properties and how they work defines which of the following?
76) Permanent changes in behavior that result from experience are examples of
77) When an infant cries, the caregiver responds by picking up the child, changing a diaper or feeding. These actions by the caregiver serve as reinforcements, increasing the likelihood that the child will again communicate certain needs by crying. This demonstrates that even an infant learns through which type of conditioning?
78) If an infant is babbling and accidentally babbles something that sounds like a real word, the child's parents show interest and encouragement. That encouragement reinforces the child's "accidental word" leading to further attempts to form such words. This example demonstrates which of the following views of language development?
79) Which of the following theorists is credited with the development of the behaviorist perspective of language?
80) What terminology would some theorists use to describe the innate language processor that children are born with?
81) What is the basis of interactionist theory?
82) Most of us speak in high pitched voices when speaking to a young child. Which of the following terms best describes this type of speaking?
83) Babbling with a rising intonation seems to signal
84) Receptive is to expressive as
85) "Mommy sick!" is an example of which type of language?
86) Which of the following best defines intelligence?
87) During the first of Freud's psychosexual stages of development the child derives satisfaction from stimulation of which body part?
88) Which term would Freud use when referring to the interdependence between mother and child?
89) Bart depends on his mother for everything he needs. When he cries, she responds with food or a clean diaper or a cuddle. Erikson would say that Bart's mother is helping him resolve the conflict known as
90) In the Harlow monkey studies, with which "mother" did the infant monkeys spend the most time?
91) According to Bowlby's theory of attachment which of the following will a child have developed by age 5 years?
92) Chad cries and his mother responds immediately. When he coos at his mother, she smiles and cuddles him. Developmentalists would say that this is an example of which of the following?
93) Yong Park is nine months old. Lately when his mother tries to leave him in the church nursery, he cries and clings to his mother. His seems especially anxious if there is a new worker in the nursery. Considering his age, Yong Park is probably experiencing which of the following?
94) Some infants between 6 and 16 months experience a fear of people they do not know. which of the following best identifies this fearful phase which seems to disappear as quickly as it came?
95) Callie, age 11 months, went to the circus with her mother. When a clown came bouncing up to Callie's stroller, Callie was anxious and looked at her mother. When Callie's mother began to laugh at the clown, Callie joined in the laughter. Callie's behavior is called
96) Which of the following terms is used to describe children who readily separate from their caregivers and seem to enjoy exploring their surroundings?
97) A child shows no interest in contact with her mother following a separation. This child does not specifically resist the mothers' efforts, but she will not seek much contact. She shows no preference for her mother over a stranger. Which of the following best describes this child?
98) When Mason cries, his mother responds by picking him up. When he coos, his mother talks to him. She smiles when he smiles. These are examples of which of the following?
99) Julie's mother is extremely busy with her job, which she does at home. Some days Julie's mom is responsive and attentive, other days she is so overwhelmed by work that she is emotionally unavailable. Which of the following attachment styles is Julie likely to develop?
100) What did researchers find in cross-cultural studies of attachment?
101) The emotional and behavioral predispositions present at birth are thought to be the foundation of personality. These predispositions are collectively referred to as
102) Roberto is 11 months old. He smiles a lot, is generally cheerful and shows little anxiety around strangers. Which type of temperament does Roberto have?
103) Which of the following terms is used to describe the temperament of children who are less regular with their body functions and slower to develop stable eating and sleeping patterns?
104) Which of the following is true regarding the long-term stability of temperament?
105) Which of the following best describes the toddler's understanding that he or she is defined by membership in various categories, such as gender or personality characteristics?
106) Megan is a toddler who participated in an experiment. Her mother placed a dot of rouge on her nose and sat her in front of a mirror to see if she would reach for the mirror or her own nose in order to touch the red spot. If Megan reaches for her own nose, she is demonstrating