PSY202 Second Exam Study Guide


____          1.   _____ refers to the consistency in who you are, have been, and will become, as well as to the special blend of talents, values, hopes, loves, hates, and habits that makes you a unique person.



____          2.   A(n) _____ is a shy, reserved person whose attention is focused inward, while a(n) _____ is a bold, outgoing person whose attention is directed outward.



____          3.   In individualistic cultures like the U.S., self-esteem is based on



____          4.   With respect to the influence of traits and situations on behavior, it is most accurate to say that the two



____          5.   The id attempts free expression of impulses of all kinds because it operates in terms of the



____          6.   In Freudian theory, the life instincts are called _____, while the death (or aggressive) instincts are known as _____.



____          7.   According to Freud, a person with a poorly developed _____ will be a delinquent or a criminal.



____          8.   Freud typified personality as a struggle in which the _____ is caught in the middle.



____          9.   According to Freud, _____ consist(s) of mental processes that deny, distort, or otherwise block out sources of threat and anxiety.



____          10. Sometimes a person may feel guilty without knowing why. Psychoanalytic theory credits such guilt to _____ workings of the superego.



____          11. If a person likes to argue, is cynical, and exploits others, he or she may be fixated at the _____ stage and have an _____ personality.



____          12. According to Freud, the successful resolution of the Oedipal and Electra conflicts ends when the child uses _____, which allows the child to take on the values and behaviors of the same-sex parent.



____          13. According to Adler, _____ involves trying to make up for certain limitations or weaknesses.



____          14. According to Bandura, _____ play a key role in shaping our lives by influencing the activities and environments we choose to get into.



____          15. When his dad is fixing things around the house, five-year-old Jamie gets out his toy tool kit and acts like he is fixing things. Jamie even tries to walk and talk like his father does because Jamie wants to be like his father so much. This illustrates the social learning concept of



____          16. _____ personality theory focuses on free choice and the potential to blossom, while _____ personality theory emphasize instincts and unconscious forces.



____          17. The process of fully developing personal potentials is referred to as



____          18. According to the humanists, _____ is shown when people are free from dependence on external authority or on other people.



____          19. Temporary moments of self-actualization, in which a person has feelings of ecstasy, harmony, and deep meaning are called

____          20. Seligman and Peterson’s study of the six human strengths that contribute to well-being and life satisfaction would be considered a topic of



____          21. Appreciation of beauty and excellence, gratitude, hope, humor, and spirituality describe the human strength, identified by Seligman and Peterson, as



____          22. According to Carl Rogers, a person living in harmony with her or his deepest feelings, impulses, and intuitions is a(n) _____ person.



____          23. Terri believes that she is a person who “never gets angry,” when, in reality, she spends much of each day seething with anger inside. Rogers would say that Terri is experiencing



____          24. According to humanistic psychologists, being authentic means



____          25. According to Rogers, mirrors, photographs, video cameras, and the reactions of others hold both fascination and threat for many people because they



____          26. According to Rogers, conditions of worth often lead to a denial of one's true feelings and experiences, which prevent a person from developing a(n)



____          27. A weakness of the _____ theory is that it understates the impact that temperament, emotion, thinking, and subjective experience have on personality.



____          28. An objective test that has ten clinical subscales that rate a person's tendencies for depression, hysteria, paranoia, psychasthenia, and mania are found on the



____          29. The Rorschach and the TAT are considered



____          30. Which of the following techniques is recommended for overcoming shyness?



____          31. The term _____ refers to the scientific study of the origins, symptoms, and development of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders and to the disorders, themselves.



____          32. A person whose immoral behavior harms others, but who feels no remorse for such harmful behavior, would NOT be regarded as abnormal if the criterion used is



____          33. As part of a class assignment to "find out how it feels to be crazy for a day," students performed some "strange" behaviors in public, such as talking to imaginary people, covering their heads with aluminum foil, or walking around a mall with an open umbrella. The students are exhibiting which facet of abnormality?



____          34. A core feature of all abnormal behavior is that it is



____          35. The system used in the United States and Canada to classify psychological problems



____          36. Pablo is seen walking down the street, shouting at imaginary individuals "to turn it down." When the police stop him and ask him why he is shouting, he tells them that the transmitter that the CIA implanted in his head is "not working properly" and is too loud. Pablo most likely has a(n) _____ disorder.



____          37. When Sara returned from her tour of duty in Iraq, she experienced symptoms of a post-traumatic stress disorder, which is classified as a type of a(n)_____ disorder.



____          38. Gregory has been homeless for the past three years. The stress of being homeless seems to have contributed to the onset of psychosis. This example illustrates what risk factor for mental disorders?



____          39. When a person experiences delusions and/or hallucinations and loses contact with shared views of reality, the person is experiencing a



____          40. False beliefs that are held even when the facts contradict them are called



____          41. If you have the false belief that other people are “out to get you,” although there are no facts to support this belief, then you are experiencing



____          42. Imaginary sensations, such as seeing, hearing, or smelling things that do not exist in the real world are known as



____          43. A person with _____ slowly loses the ability to work, cook, drive, read, and write and will eventually become mute and bedridden. This disorder appears to be caused by unusual webs and tangles in the brain that damage areas important for memory and learning.



____          44. People with _____ exhibit a psychosis marked by the presence of deeply held false beliefs about experiences that could occur in real life. They usually do not suffer from hallucinations, emotional excesses, or personality disintegration.



____          45. The risk of developing schizophrenia for the general population is _____ percent.



____          46. Major disturbances in emotion, such as depression or mania, are classified as _____ disorders.



____          47. Which of the following is classified as a mood disorder?



____          48. Which of the following is most characteristic of a person with a major depression who attempts suicide?



____          49. When individuals are  _____, they tend to be loud, elated, hyperactive, and may exhibit grandiose schemes and behavior, which may get them arrested, bankrupt, or involved in pleasure binges of drinking, taking drugs, or promiscuous sex.



____          50. Which theory holds that depression is caused by repressed anger turned inward as self-blame?



____          51. According to the _____ theory, depression is caused by learned helplessness, while the _____ theory states that self-criticism and negative, distorted, or self-defeating thoughts underlie many cases of depression.



____          52. After giving birth, Gretchen felt tense and irritable. During the next two months, Gretchen experienced mood swings in which she often felt totally inadequate to be a mother much of the time. Gretchen was most likely experiencing



____          53. After living in New Orleans for ten years, Rebecca's company transferred her to Maine. Since moving to Maine, she is bothered by depression that repeatedly occurred with the onset of autumn and continues through the winter months. When spring arrives, she begins feeling normal again. Rebecca's symptoms suggest that she is experiencing a _____ disorder.



____          54. _____ refers to feelings of apprehension, dread, or uneasiness.



____          55. Joseph has just lost his job because of the company downsizing. He soon begins having trouble sleeping, loses his appetite, and begins having frequent headaches and an upset stomach. His symptoms decrease as he attends some job placement counseling. Joseph most likely experienced a(n)



____          56. Sue is housebound. It began when she suddenly became overwhelmed by panic at the mall. Now she feels faint if she thinks of leaving the house, and she must use elaborate alibis to avoid getting into her car, getting on the freeway, or even going to the market. She is suffering from



____          57. Irrational and very specific fears that persist even when there is no real danger to a person are called



____          58. Throughout the day, Judy is distracted by the thought that she has left her keys locked in her car. As a result, she checks her purse dozens of times each day to be sure the keys are with her. In this example, Judy's thought about the keys is a(n) _____, and checking her purse is a(n) _____.



____          59. Aaron's home was destroyed in a tornado a week ago. Right after the tornado, Aaron had difficulty sleeping and had frequent nightmares about tornadoes when he did go to sleep. He also experienced difficulty concentrating at work and becomes visibly nervous whenever he saw the wind blowing harder than a breeze. Three weeks after the tornado, Aaron appears to be settling down and is sleeping better and able to function at work like before the tornado. Aaron suffered from a(n)



____          60. Ron served in Iraq as part of a special operations team that was pinned down for nearly 20 hours by enemy fire. After 18 months, he continued to relive the episode. This is a symptom of



____          61. _____ therapy is designed to bring about direct changes in troublesome thoughts and behavior, without seeking an understanding into the origins of these thoughts and behaviors.



____          62. Psychotherapy is best viewed as



____          63. _____ was a primitive procedure that was used to "release evil spirits" and consisted of boring, chipping, or bashing holes in the patients' heads.



____          64. In Europe, exorcism was used as a treatment at a time when _____ prevailed as an approach to abnormal behavior.



____          65. During the Middle Ages, if people ate rye bread tainted by a grain fungus, they would develop a psychotic-like condition, which was attributed to demon possession then, but which we now know as



____          66. The purpose of free association and dream analysis is to



____          67. According to Freud, the job of the psychoanalyst is to help the patient work past the obvious, visible meaning of the dream to uncover the hidden, symbolic _____ content of the dream.



____          68. Humanistic therapies generally emphasize



____          69. If your therapist tends to focus on issues of death, freedom, isolation, and meaninglessness, he or she would probably be classified as a(n) _____ therapist.



____          70. A form of therapy that encourages one to become aware of emotions in the "here and now" and to rebuild thinking, feeling, and acting into connected wholes is



____          71. Which of the following psychological services are offered via the Internet?



____          72. Timon lives in a rural area that does not have ready access to mental health specialists nor is he able to travel long distances. So, his home health service provides him and his family with an audio-video link through computer monitors and speakerphones to a therapist once a week. Timon and his family are receiving the help of a trained therapist through



____          73. _____ is the use of learning principles to make constructive changes in behavior and includes aversion therapy, desensitization, and token economies.



____          74. Michael’s therapist is helping Michael to discover what led to his fear of closed spaces so that by understanding his condition he can decrease his fear of small spaces. Abby's therapist, on the other hand, is trying to help Abby to alleviate her fear of small spaces by gradually exposing her to smaller and smaller spaces. Michael's therapist is most likely a(n) _____, while Abby’s therapist is most likely a(n) _____.



____          75. In _____, a person learns to associate a negative emotional response with some undesirable habit.



____          76. Snapping a rubber band around your wrist every time you have a negative thought would be a form of



____          77. Gradually approaching a feared stimulus while maintaining relaxation describes the therapy technique known as



____          78. Vicarious desensitization occurs when the client



____          79. _____ is a technique for reducing fear or anxiety that is based on holding upsetting thoughts in mind while rapidly moving the eyes from side to side.



____          80. If a response is not followed by a reward after it has been repeated many times, it will go away. This describes the operant conditioning term of



____          81. A behavior therapist wants to reward a developmentally delayed child for saying a word, but settles at first for getting her to say its first letter sound and then another letter sound, and so on. The therapist is using



____          82. Scolding misbehaving children in a classroom may actually increase misbehavior because of the



____          83. _____ are secondary reinforcers that can be exchanged for candy, food, watching TV, or privileges.



____          84. The aim of _____ therapists is to teach clients effective coping skills so that they can cope with anger, depression, shyness, stress, and similar problems.



____          85. Rational-emotive behavior therapy attributes negative emotions to



____          86. According to Ellis, most _____ come(s) from the following three core ideas: “You must treat me fairly; I must perform well and be approved of by significant others; conditions must be the way I want them to be.



____          87. For gamblers, seeing luck as a trait, incorrect beliefs about randomness, and putting too much faith in intuition are



____          88. _____ is a technique in which all family members participate, both individually and as a group, to change destructive relationships and communication patterns.



____          89. Improvement caused not by the actual process of therapy, but by a client's expectation that therapy will help is known as



____          90. The use of drugs to alleviate the symptoms of emotional disturbance is known as