psy202 exam 2 study guide spring 2012
____ 1. In psychology, the term _____ is defined as an individual's unique and enduring patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving.
____ 2. An infant’s _____, such as sensitivity, irritability, and typical mood, has a large impact on how the infant interacts with his or her parents.
____ 3. _____ are a shorthand way of labeling people who have several key traits in common.
____ 4. Often when twins who were separated at birth are reunited, they tend to focus on all of their similarities, while ignoring their differences. This is known as
____ 5. In working with his clients and in his lectures at the university, Dr. Ferris tends to explain personality and various psychological disorders in terms of a person's responses being reinforced or punished as they were growing up. Dr. Ferris places the most importance on the _____ theory of personality.
____ 6. As a medical doctor, Freud became interested in personality because
____ 7. In Freudian theory, the life instincts are called _____, while the death (or aggressive) instincts are known as _____.
____ 8. Which of the following statements is TRUE of the superego?
____ 9. According to Freud, the ego often employs _____ in order to reduce the anxieties resulting from an imbalance among the three parts of the personality.
____ 10. Sometimes a person may feel guilty without knowing why. Psychoanalytic theory credits such guilt to _____ workings of the superego.
____ 11. Freud believed that at each psychosexual stage a different part of the body becomes
____ 12. _____ was a student of Freud’s but developed his own ideas, which included such concepts as the persona, introversion and extroversion, the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious, and archetypes.
____ 13. According to Jung, all humans have had experiences with birth, death, power, god figures, mother and father figures, animals, the earth, energy, evil, and rebirth. Such universal experiences create
____ 14. According to behavioral personality theorists, hostility, generosity, or destructive impulses
____ 15. Sarah finds a lost wallet and returns it, money intact, to the rightful owner. Learning theorists would say that Sarah is
____ 16. The term "situational determinants" implies that
____ 17. Mitch knows that if he and his brother play quietly until their mother finishes her college homework, that she will rent a movie for them and make them popcorn. Mitch and his brother's anticipation of this movie night reward is referred to by Julian Rotter as
____ 18. Regarding the critical situation of feeding, if children are fed when they cry, it encourages them to be _____, while a child allowed to cry without being fed learns to be _____.
____ 19. Learning sex-appropriate behavior is greatly influenced by
____ 20. According to social learning theory, _____ refers to the child's emotional attachment to admired adults, especially those who provide love and care.
____ 21. According to the social learning theorists, learning can take place _____ as well as directly, which means that we can learn without direct reward by observing and remembering the actions of others.
____ 22. Margaret, who is 90 years old, is a person who is living creatively and fully using her potentials. Maslow would call Margaret a(n)
____ 23. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of self-actualizers?
____ 24. Self-actualizers tend to
____ 25. Love, kindness, and social intelligence describe the human strength, identified by Seligman and Peterson, as
____ 26. From the perspective of Carl Rogers, adults who are having adjustment problems are probably
____ 27. The development of the self-image
____ 28. According to Rogers, conditions of worth often lead to a denial of one's true feelings and experiences, which prevent a person from developing a(n)
____ 29. If a personality test measures consistently every time it is given, we say that the test is
____ 30. Projective tests
____ 31. Shyness is most often triggered by _____ social situations.
____ 32. Though showing no obvious signs of psychopathology, one who is anxious and unhappy might be classified abnormal by the criterion of
____ 33. Statistical approaches to abnormality define as "abnormal" those who
____ 34. Insanity is
____ 35. The chief distinguishing feature of psychotic disorders is
____ 36. A person who is manic most likely suffers from a(n) _____ disorder.
____ 37. Imaginary sensations, such as seeing, hearing, or smelling things that do not exist in the real world are known as
____ 38. A symptom commonly seen in _____ is called flat affect, in which the person responds in an emotionally flat way that is lacking in normal facial and verbal expressions.
____ 39. Brain damage due to lead or mercury poisoning that causes the person to experience delusions, hallucinations, and a loss of emotional control would be classified as a(n)
____ 40. John believed that if he spray painted his favorite actress’ name on every building in his small town, that this actress would see it on the news and would fall madly in love with him. John’s delusion would be classified as which type?
____ 41. A man is spending large amounts of money on security equipment because he believes his neighbors are spying on him and plotting to murder him. Delusions of this sort would be of which type?
____ 42. James Huberty, who killed 21 people at a fast-food restaurant, was considered by some observers to have _____ because he believed everyone was persecuting him and he had been hearing hallucinating voices.
____ 43. Regarding the stress-vulnerability model, which of the following statements is/are TRUE?
____ 44. Major disturbances in emotion, such as depression or mania, are classified as _____ disorders.
____ 45. For at least the last two years, Sara has been experiencing mild depression which alternates with periods of her being cheerful and expansive, but also irritable. These changes in her mood appear to be reactions to external events, and she has never experienced a psychotic episode. Sara would most likely be diagnosed with a _____ disorder.
____ 46. Lowery has extreme feelings of failure and worthlessness and believes he is the most sinful person on earth and deserves to die. He has eaten little and rarely left his bed in the last several days. Lowery would be diagnosed with a
____ 47. According to the _____ theory, depression is caused by learned helplessness, while the _____ theory states that self-criticism and negative, distorted, or self-defeating thoughts underlie many cases of depression.
____ 48. After giving birth, Gretchen felt tense and irritable. During the next two months, Gretchen experienced mood swings in which she often felt totally inadequate to be a mother much of the time. Gretchen was most likely experiencing
____ 49. Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is characterized by
____ 50. By comparison with an anxiety disorder, an adjustment disorder
____ 51. Jarmin is a sports announcer who has an overwhelming fear of flying. He will spend hours or days driving from coast to coast for a job and has even turned down jobs because he could not get to that job on time by taking the train or by traveling by car. The few times he has tried to get on a plane, he became dizzy and sick to his stomach. Jarmin would be diagnosed with
____ 52. Carson recently lost his job and has a great debt accumulated from gambling. He also has been feeling extreme pressure about not being able to take care of his eight children. After having too much to drink, Carson ran over a child crossing the street. Immediately following this episode, Carson could not remember who he was. This example illustrates
____ 53. When anxiety or severe emotional conflicts are transformed into physical symptoms resembling disease or disability, it is called
____ 54. According to the _____ approach, anxiety disorders represent a raging conflict among the subparts of the personality, which forces the person to use rigid defense mechanisms and misguided, inflexible behavior to prevent a loss of control.
____ 55. A person who demonstrates unhealthy submissiveness and who is clinging is said to have a(n) _____ personality.
____ 56. A person who is initially charming, but who is “blind” to disgust in others, lacks a conscience, and feels no guilt, shame, fear, loyalty, or love would be diagnosed with a(n) _____ personality disorder.
____ 57. Regarding psychiatric labeling and social stigma, which of the following statements is/are TRUE?
____ 58. Treatment for psychological problems may involve
____ 59. Recent life crisis, aggression, risk-taking, sudden mood swings, and gift-giving of prized possessions are among the warning signs for
____ 60. Asking someone if he or she is thinking of committing suicide
____ 61. One thing that both trepanning and exorcism have in common is that both were used
____ 62. The purpose of free association and dream analysis is to
____ 63. Which of the following psychotherapeutic techniques is most likely to be used by a client-centered therapist?
____ 64. The _____ approach emphasizes immediate experience and encourages clients to become more aware of their moment-to-moment thoughts, perceptions and emotions as well as to accept responsibility for these thoughts, feelings, and actions.
____ 65. Objections to the use of Internet therapy include which of the following?
____ 66. The principal assumption of behavior modification is that
____ 67. _____ is a form of learning in which simple responses (especially reflexes) are associated with new stimuli.
____ 68. The owner of a chicken ranch ends a pet dog's habit of stealing and eating eggs by allowing the dog to "find" and eat several eggs laced with Tabasco sauce. The ranch owner's approach is similar to
____ 69. Katie is very afraid of deep water. According to behavior therapists, the best way to alleviate Katie’s fear is to
____ 70. Identifying and removing rewards is a behavioral technique designed to bring about
____ 71. In an institution for delinquent adolescents, a behavioral system has been implemented in which the adolescents earn points for target behaviors like getting up on time, making beds, and attending class. They are allowed to exchange their earned points for privileges, activities, etc. They are also charged tokens for inappropriate behaviors, such as staying in bed or fighting. This system is called _____ and is based on _____.
____ 72. If you seek counseling help from a cognitive behavior therapist, you would expect him or her to
____ 73. Dana made an A on a test, was asked on a date by a guy in class, and was complimented by several people on her class presentation; but then she cannot find her psychology notes and searches the library and the cafeteria before she remembers that she left them at home. When her mother asks how her day went, Dana wails that it was just awful and relates only the part of her day when her psychology notes were lost. According to Aaron Beck, Dana is exhibiting
____ 74. Charles was rejected by his long-time girlfriend. He has decided that no other woman will love him, that his co-workers and the people who say they are his friends must also dislike him, too. Charles has let his rejection by his girlfriend “color” his perceptions of other areas in his life. Beck referred to this as
____ 75. The aim of _____ therapists is to teach clients effective coping skills so that they can cope with anger, depression, shyness, stress, and similar problems.
____ 76. Jamie is very angry and tells his friend, "I studied for that test. I should have gotten at least a B. That teacher is so unfair. Everything would be great around here if it wasn't for her." According to REBT, Jamie's anger is due to
____ 77. Paul, an 18-year-old college student, is playing online blackjack and credits his skill for the wins and blames his losses on bad luck. Paul is exhibiting which of the cognitive distortions that lead to gambling addictions?
____ 78. _____ is a therapy in which clients act out personal conflicts and feelings in the presence of others who play supporting roles.
____ 79. _____ is a technique in which all family members participate, both individually and as a group, to change destructive relationships and communication patterns.
____ 80. An effective therapist
____ 81. Which of the following behaviors could you exhibit that would help another person to solve a personal problem?
____ 82. Darnell’s friend has just broken up with his girlfriend and appears depressed. Which of the following statements should Darnell use to effectively counsel his friend?
____ 83. The use of drugs to alleviate the symptoms of emotional disturbance is known as
____ 84. According to your textbook, one of the two goals of community mental health centers is an emphasis on
____ 85. In practice, community mental health centers have
____ 86. _____ are individuals who work in a near-professional capacity under the supervision of a more highly trained person in providing psychological services.
____ 87. Factors that indicate a need for professional help include which of the following?
____ 88. Compared to a psychologist, a psychiatrist
____ 89. An especially important part of the therapeutic alliance is
____ 90. Persons with anxiety disorders tend to _____ the danger associated with intense emotional experience and tend to reduce their anxiety by _____. The use of virtual reality therapy has been successful in counteracting both of these tendencies.