psy202 second exam study guide
____ 1. Gregory tends to be shy and prefers to study alone in quiet corners of the library. Gregory would be classified as
____ 2. If self-esteem is too high, the person may be perceived as
____ 3. To understand personality, trait theorists attempt to
____ 4. Michael’s psychologist believes that Michael’s depression is due to internal conflicts and struggles he is experiencing over the relationship he had as a child with his hypercritical but overprotective mother. Michael’s psychologist emphasizes which theory of personality?
____ 5. The trait approach would be used to identify
____ 6. According to Freud, which part of the personality is made up of innate biological instincts and urges and is self-serving, impulsive, and irrational?
____ 7. In Freud’s theory, the mental structure that is in conscious control of the personality and often delays action until it is practical or appropriate is the
____ 8. You are talking to a new classmate. She asks you where you went to high school and if you have any brothers or sisters. According to Freud, this personal information about your life resided in which level of consciousness until you “pulled” it up into current awareness?
____ 9. During the first year of life, the child is said to go through the __________ stage.
____ 10. If Jonathan identifies with his father, Freud believed he was doing this because of his need to resolve the __________ conflict.
____ 11. According to Freud, children from age six to puberty experience a quiet, settled time when psychosexual development is “on hold.” This is called the __________ period.
____ 12. Because we begin life as small, weak, and relatively powerless children surrounded by more powerful adults, Adler believed that everyone
____ 13. Humanism involves the view that
____ 14. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of self-actualizers?
____ 15. According to Rogers, the total subjective perception of one's body and personality is called the
____ 16. Rogers calls the image of the person you would like to be the
____ 17. Behavioral personality theorists
____ 18. At lunch, a friend responds to something you said with a sarcastic comeback. Whether you interpret your friend’s remark as mean-spirited and hurtful, or as an example of your friend’s cutting brand of humor, will be important in explaining your next response. Julian Rotter called this interpretation
____ 19. Both Tasha and Eric made a D on their first psychology test. Tasha plans to study harder and do as much extra credit as she can in order to pull this grade up to an A before the end of the semester. However, Eric feels sure that he can pull a C out of the course, which is good enough for his program of study. Tasha and Eric appear to place different __________ on grades.
____ 20. You are planning to get your doctorate in psychology. Do you believe you will be able to make the sacrifices, study long hours, conduct research, and write a dissertation? If you do, then Bandura would say that you have a high degree of
____ 21. Gayle made a 98 on her term paper for psychology class. So, she treats herself to a manicure to reward herself for a job well done. Gayle is using
____ 22. According to social learning theory, a child’s attempts to match his or her behavior to another person’s behavior is called
____ 23. Temperament refers to
____ 24. In comparison of identical twins reared together and identical twins reared apart, it was found that
____ 25. A person states that almost anyone would be polite at a wedding reception; it doesn’t matter what kind of personality the person has. This person believes that the behavior of people is strongly influenced by
____ 26. A person states that the reason people in some professions, such as teachers, lawyers, or doctors, seem so much alike is because their work requires that they act in particular ways. This person believes that the behavior of these professionals is strongly influenced by
____ 27. Although Jan would be described as very extroverted, she will be more extroverted at a party than when she is attending church. This observation supports the concept of
____ 28. According to your textbook, the best way to judge a theory is by its
____ 29. For humanistic theorists, the principal motive involves
____ 30. Jon is in the office of a potential employer. The conversation with his potential boss is informal with topics being taken up freely as they arise. Jon is undergoing a(n)
____ 31. Regarding the interview process, which of the following statements is FALSE?
____ 32. The tendency to generalize a favorable or unfavorable first impression to an entire personality is known as
____ 33. Your session with a clinical psychologist begins with her asking you describe what you see in a set of ambiguous pictures. This psychologist is using a(n)
____ 34. A proficiency in interacting with others is referred to as having
____ 35. Whenever Tina has to go to a formal, public gathering as part of her job, she experiences intense fear of being inadequate, embarrassed, ridiculed, or rejected. Tina is exhibiting
____ 36. If you always blame yourself when a social encounter does not go well, you may have a distortion in thinking known as
____ 37. Which of the following is NOT one of the major elements of shyness?
____ 38. Paranoid, narcissistic, dependent, antisocial, and borderline are types of __________ disorders.
____ 39. Which type of disorders may involve feelings of panic, or may take the form of irrational fears or obsessive-compulsive behavior patterns?
____ 40. Which of the following is an outdated term that people use loosely to refer to problems involving excessive anxiety?
____ 41. While reading this chapter, a student notices what seems to be abnormal tendencies in his own behavior. This
____ 42. Janie is hearing voices telling her “to bang her head against the wall” or “hold her hand under scalding hot water.” Janie is experiencing a(n)
____ 43. Carl, who is in his early 70s and has a history of strokes, has undergone a substantial personality shift and has been having memory difficulties. He is probably suffering from
____ 44. John believed that if he spray painted his favorite actress’ name on every building in his small town, that this actress would see it on the news and would fall madly in love with him. John’s delusion would be classified as which type?
____ 45. In which subtype of schizophrenia do individuals appear to be struggling desperately to control their inner turmoil through their mutism and rigid posturing, which resembles the tendency to “freeze” at times of great emergency or panic?
____ 46. Because there is considerable overlap among the types of schizophrenia and because patterns of behavior shift over time, many patients are simply classified as suffering from __________ schizophrenia.
____ 47. Regarding hereditary influences and schizophrenia, it is most accurate to say that
____ 48. Research using PET scans on the schizophrenic brain reveal that their brains
____ 49. Sadness, hopelessness, withdrawal, and feelings of worthlessness are symptoms of
____ 50. If mild to moderate depression alternates with periods when a person’s mood is elevated, expansive, or irritable, the disorder is called
____ 51. Bruce throws himself into a whirlwind of activity marked by extreme distractibility, rapid shifts and thoughts, constant talking, and restless movement. His behavior at other times could also be described as a deep depression. Bruce is probably suffering from __________ disorder.
____ 52. Hypomania is the term that refers to __________ manic episodes.
____ 53. After giving birth, Gretchen felt tense and irritable. During the next two months, Gretchen experienced mood swings in which she often felt totally inadequate to be a mother much of the time. Gretchen was most likely experiencing
____ 54. SAD stands for
____ 55. Susan is a very bright college student and does well in all of her classes, except for one. She is unable to graduate because she keeps withdrawing from speech class. The few times she has actually tried to present her well-written speeches, she has started shaking and sweating, her voice would quiver and then she would completely lose her train of thought. She would then leave the classroom and withdraw from the speech class. Susan would be diagnosed as having a(n)
____ 56. An obsession is to a compulsion as an unwanted thought is to an unwanted
____ 57. Mary was raped outside a local movie theatre over two months ago. Since then, she constantly imagines the circumstances of the rape, is afraid to go to the movies or the mall and avoids doing so, and has frequent nightmares about being raped. Mary’s reaction would be classified as a(n) __________ disorder.
____ 58. Most people have mild phobias, but they are not considered phobia disorders unless the
____ 59. Regarding common specific phobias, which of the following specific phobias listed is the most common among Americans?
____ 60. Juanita worries excessively about her children, her job, her house, and her finances to the point that she stays so nervous that she cannot get anything done. This continuing sense of foreboding has interfered with her ability to sleep, eat, and enjoy life for at least six months. Juanita suffers from a __________ disorder.
____ 61. Which of the following is an example of dissociative fugue?
____ 62. Santana has been showing uncontrollable sneezing for the last two weeks. The doctor finds that Santana does not have a cold or allergies and that the sneezes are unusual in their rate and rhythm and Santanna’s eyes do not close during the sneeze. Her husband says that Santana does not sneeze in her sleep. All of these signs suggest that Santana’s sneezing is a(n) __________ disorder.
____ 63. Which of the following is a Freudian interpretation of an anxiety-based disorder?
____ 64. Which of the following was the first to propose a psychodynamic explanation for what he called “neurosis”?
____ 65. Unhealthy anxiety reflects a loss of meaning in one's life, according to the __________ perspective.
____ 66. Changing the thinking patterns of anxious individuals can greatly lessen their fears, according to __________ therapists.
____ 67. Which of the following persons would most likely be diagnosed with an avoidant personality disorder?
____ 68. A person who demonstrates unhealthy submissiveness and who is clinging is said to have a(n) __________ personality.
____ 69. If you met an individual who appeared to be very charming at first, but later you discovered that this person manipulated people and caused others hurt without remorse, you might suspect this person of having which personality disorder?
____ 70. All of the following are characteristics of suicidal thinking EXCEPT for
____ 71. The first true psychotherapy was developed to help people suffering from what was then called hysteria, a condition which is now known as
____ 72. The disappearance of symptoms of a disorder, such as hyperactivity or anxiety, due to the mere passage of time is called
____ 73. Brian is a psychologist. He has his clients sign contracts and gives them “homework,” which they must complete and then report the results of these actions to him at the next session. Brian’s type of therapy would best be described as __________ therapy.
____ 74. Gaining understanding is to making direct changes as
____ 75. Which therapy focuses on the therapist being authentic, showing empathy, and reflecting the client’s thoughts and feelings?
____ 76. If your therapist tends to focus on issues of death, freedom, isolation, and meaninglessness, he or she would probably be classified as a(n) __________ therapist.
____ 77. Lindsay fails an accounting test. Lindsay now believes that she should probably change to a non-business major, that she should quit her part-time job at the bank, and should resign as the treasurer for the business club, even though she is quite good at all of these activities. Lindsay’s behavior exemplifies the distortion of thinking cognitive therapists call
____ 78. Ralph’s long-time girlfriend Amy dumped him during his junior year in college. When asked why he hasn’t dated much in the last five years, he says that “he’ll never be able to truly trust another woman after what Amy did to him.” According to REBT, Ralph
____ 79. Which of the following therapies states that irrational beliefs cause many emotional problems and that these beliefs must be changed or abandoned?
____ 80. Aversion therapy for smoking involves rapid smoking which seems to work because
____ 81. For a child, the sight of a needle (CS) is followed by an injection (US), which causes fear (UR). Eventually the sight of the needle (CS) may produce a learned fear of the needle (CR). This illustrates
____ 82. Desensitization is primarily used to
____ 83. Lamont’s therapist helps him construct a list of fear-producing situations involving heights. His therapist then teaches Lamont exercises that produce deep relaxation. Once Lamont is relaxed, he attempts the first item on the list, which is “standing on a chair.” The first item is repeated until Lamont feels no anxiety. He then proceeds to the second item “climbing a small stepladder.” During the next six weeks, this procedure continues until Lamont performs the last item of “flying in an airplane.” Lamont and his therapist are using
____ 84. Lately, you have been reinforcing your child’s temper tantrums with your attention. If you withhold your attention, ignoring the temper tantrums for several days, they will eventually stop. A psychologist would call this effect
____ 85. What is the primary effect of anxiolytic medication?
____ 86. Modern practices in the treatment of psychological disorders avoid long-term hospitalization and its chief negative side-effect, which is often
____ 87. Research on the effectiveness of psychotherapy suggests that
____ 88. Jan’s therapist uses an insight therapy in helping Jan to deal with her fears and anxieties. Her therapist is intent on having Jan focus on her immediate awareness and not indulge in the past. Jan’s therapist is most likely a
____ 89. Moreno believed that through psychodrama people
____ 90. When people have problems with anxiety or depression and call into a radio psychologist or ask an Internet therapist for advice, the very best advice for this media counselor to give is to tell these people to